Tag Archives: ghilani

Normal Distribution Curve

The Normal Distribution, Part 1

Errors in observations can be classified as systematic or random. Systematic errors are errors that follow physical laws and can be mathematically corrected or removed by following proper field procedures with instruments. For example, the expansion or contraction of a steel tape caused by temperatures that differ from the tape’s standard temperature is a systematic...

Geodetic Observations

Geodetic Observations, Part 3

Types of Distances for Geodetic Observations This article explores the various types of distances that are often listed on GNSS adjustment reports; for related articles on the difference between geodetic and observed azimuths and angles, see “Where Theory Meets Practice” in Professional Surveyor’s March and May 2014, issues. Slope (slant) distances (S) observed on the...